Efficient power converter for internet of things(IOT) devices

New Design reduces converter’s resting power consumption by 50 percent.

The “internet of things” is the idea that vehicles, appliances, civil structures, manufacturing equipment, and even livestock will soon have sensors that report information directly to networked servers, aiding with maintenance and the coordination of tasks.and we can monitor all things with a single device.iot,internet of things

Those sensors will have to operate at very low powers, in order to extend battery life for months or make do with energy harvested from the environment. But that means that they’ll need to draw a wide range of electrical currents. A sensor might, for instance, wake up every so often, take a measurement, and perform a small calculation to see whether that measurement crosses some threshold.Those operations require relatively little current, but occasionally, the sensor might need to transmit an alert to a distant radio receiver. That requires much larger currents.

Generally, power converters, which take an input voltage and convert it to a steady output voltage, are efficient only within a narrow range of currents. But at the International Solid-State Circuits Conference last week, researchers from MIT’s Microsystems Technologies Laboratories (MTL) presented a new power converter that maintains its efficiency at currents ranging from 500 picoamps to 1 milliamp, a span that encompasses a 200,000-fold increase in current levels.

“Typically, converters have a quiescent power, which is the power that they consume even when they’re not providing any current to the load,” says Arun Paidimarri, who was a postdoc at MTL when the work was done and is now at IBM Research. “So, for example, if the quiescent power is a microamp, then even if the load pulls only a nanoamp, it’s still going to consume a microamp of current. My converter is something that can maintain efficiency over a wide range of currents.”

Paidimarri, who also earned doctoral and master’s degrees from MIT, is first author on the conference paper. He’s joined by his thesis advisor, Anantha Chandrakasan, the Vannevar Bush Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT.

Packet perspective

The researchers’ converter is a step-down converter, meaning that its output voltage is lower than its input voltage. In particular, it takes input voltages ranging from 1.2 to 3.3 volts and reduces them to between 0.7 and 0.9 volts.

“In the low-power regime, the way these power converters work, it’s not based on a continuous flow of energy,” Paidimarri says. “It’s based on these packets of energy. You have these switches, and an inductor, and a capacitor in the power converter, and you basically turn on and off these switches.”

The control circuitry for the switches includes a circuit that measures the output voltage of the converter. If the output voltage is below some threshold — in this case, 0.9 volts — the controllers throw a switch and release a packet of energy. Then they perform another measurement and, if necessary, release another packet.

If no device is drawing current from the converter, or if the current is going only to a simple, local circuit, the controllers might release between 1 and a couple hundred packets per second. But if the converter is feeding power to a radio, it might need to release a million packets a second.

To accommodate that range of outputs, a typical converter — even a low-power one — will simply perform 1 million voltage measurements a second; on that basis, it will release anywhere from 1 to 1 million packets. Each measurement consumes energy, but for most existing applications, the power drain is negligible. For the internet of things, however, it’s intolerable.

Paidimarri and Chandrakasan’s converter thus features a variable clock, which can run the switch controllers at a wide range of rates. That, however, requires more complex control circuits. The circuit that monitors the converter’s output voltage, for instance, contains an element called a voltage divider, which siphons off a little current from the output for measurement. In a typical converter, the voltage divider is just another element in the circuit path; it is, in effect, always on.

But siphoning current lowers the converter’s efficiency, so in the MIT researchers’ chip, the divider is surrounded by a block of additional circuit elements, which grant access to the divider only for the fraction of a second that a measurement requires. The result is a 50 percent reduction in quiescent power over even the best previously reported experimental low-power, step-down converter and a tenfold expansion of the current-handling range.

“This opens up exciting new opportunities to operate these circuits from new types of energy-harvesting sources, such as body-powered electronics,” Chandrakasan says.

Story Source:

Materials provided by Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Original written by Larry Hardesty. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Graphene’s sleeping superconductivity awakens

Researchers have figured out how to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, capacity of graphene to go about as a superconductor – implying that it can be made to convey an electrical current with zero resistance.

 

graphene structure

graphene

The finding, revealed in Nature Communications, additionally improves the capability of graphene, which is as of now broadly observed as a material that could alter businesses, for example, human services and gadgets. Graphene is a two-dimensional sheet of carbon molecules and joins a few wonderful properties; for instance, it is exceptionally solid, additionally light and adaptable, and exceedingly conductive.

Since its disclosure in 2004, researchers have hypothesized that graphene may likewise have the ability to be a superconductor. As of recently, superconductivity in graphene has just been accomplished by doping it with, or by putting it on, a superconducting material – a procedure which can trade off some of its different properties.

In any case, in the new review, scientists at the University of Cambridge figured out how to initiate the lethargic potential for graphene to superconduct in its own particular right. This was accomplished by coupling it with a material called praseodymium cerium copper oxide (PCCO).

Superconductors are as of now utilized as a part of various applications. Since they create substantial attractive fields they are a basic segment in MRI scanners and suspending trains. They could likewise be utilized to make vitality productive electrical cables and gadgets fit for putting away vitality for a great many years.

 

Superconducting graphene opens up yet more conceivable outcomes. The scientists recommend, for instance, that graphene could now be utilized to make new sorts of superconducting quantum gadgets for fast figuring. Intriguingly, it may likewise be utilized to demonstrate the presence of a baffling type of superconductivity known as “p-wave” superconductivity, which scholastics have been attempting to confirm for over 20 years.

The examination was driven by Dr Angelo Di Bernardo and Dr Jason Robinson, Fellows at St John’s College, University of Cambridge, close by teammates Professor Andrea Ferrari, from the Cambridge Graphene Center; Professor Oded Millo, from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and Professor Jacob Linder, at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim.

graphene details,superconductor

                                                                   graphene

 

“It has for some time been proposed that, under the correct conditions, graphene ought to experience a superconducting move, however can’t,” Robinson said. “The possibility of this investigation was, whether we couple graphene to a superconductor, would we be able to switch that natural superconductivity on? The question then turns out to be how would you realize that the superconductivity you are seeing is originating from inside the graphene itself, and not the fundamental superconductor?”

Comparable methodologies have been taken in past reviews utilizing metallic-based superconductors, however with restricted achievement. “Setting graphene on a metal can drastically adjust the properties so it is actually no longer carrying on as we would expect,” Di Bernardo said. “What you see is not graphene’s characteristic superconductivity, but rather essentially that of the fundamental superconductor being passed on.”

PCCO is an oxide from a more extensive class of superconducting materials called “cuprates.” It additionally has surely knew electronic properties, and utilizing a procedure called checking and burrowing microscopy, the specialists could recognize the superconductivity in PCCO from the superconductivity saw in graphene.

Superconductivity is portrayed by the way the electrons connect: inside a superconductor electrons frame sets, and the turn arrangement between the electrons of a couple might be distinctive relying upon the sort – or “symmetry” – of superconductivity included. In PCCO, for instance, the sets’ turn state is misaligned (antiparallel), in what is known as a “d-wave state.”

By complexity, when graphene was coupled to superconducting PCCO in the Cambridge-drove explore, the outcomes recommended that the electron matches inside graphene were in a p-wave state. “What we found in the graphene was, as such, an altogether different sort of superconductivity than in PCCO,” Robinson said. “This was a truly essential stride since it implied that we knew the superconductivity was not originating from outside it and that the PCCO was in this way just required to unleash the inherent superconductivity of graphene.”

It stays vague what sort of superconductivity the group initiated, however their outcomes emphatically demonstrate that it is the slippery “p-wave” frame. Provided that this is true, the review could change the continuous verbal confrontation about whether this strange kind of superconductivity exists, and – if so – what precisely it is.

In 1994, scientists in Japan manufactured a triplet superconductor that may have a p-wave symmetry utilizing a material called strontium ruthenate (SRO). The p-wave symmetry of SRO has never been completely confirmed, halfway blocked by the way that SRO is a massive precious stone, which makes it testing to create into the sort of gadgets important to test hypothetical expectations.

“In the event that p-wave superconductivity is surely being made in graphene, graphene could be utilized as a platform for the creation and investigation of a radical new range of superconducting gadgets for central and connected research zones,” Robinson said. “Such examinations would fundamentally prompt to new science through a superior comprehension of p-wave superconductivity, and how it acts in various gadgets and settings.”

The review likewise has assist suggestions. For instance, it proposes that graphene could be utilized to make a transistor-like gadget in a superconducting circuit, and that its superconductivity could be joined into sub-atomic hardware. “On a basic level, given the assortment of substance particles that can tie to graphene’s surface, this examination can bring about the advancement of atomic gadgets with novel functionalities in light of superconducting graphene,” Di Bernardo included.

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Self-Healing Transistors for Chips

Self-Healing Transistors for Chips

Another plan could survive the radiation of a 20-year outing to Alpha Centauri

Astronomical Beam Confirmation: A test chip incorporates Measure and rationale circuits produced using self-recuperating door all-around transistors.

Working with the Korea Propelled Foundation of Science and Innovation (KAIST), NASA is spearheading the improvement of modest rocket, each produced using a solitary silicon chip, that could slice interstellar investigation times.

Talking at the IEEE Global Electron Gadgets Meeting in San Francisco last December, NASA’s Dong-Il Moon itemized this new innovation, which is gone for guaranteeing such rocket survive the possibly effective radiation they’ll experience on their adventure.

 

Self healing transistors for chips

self-healing transistors

Self-healing transistors Photograph: Yang-Kyu Choi

Figurings propose that if silicon chips were utilized to shape the heart of a shuttle fueled by a small, featherweight sun based sail and quickened by a gigawatt-scale laser framework, the art could quicken to one-fifth the speed of light. At such high speeds, it would come to the closest stars in only 20 years, contrasted and the a huge number of years it would take a routine shuttle.

Moon and collaborators contend that 20 years in space is still too yearn for a customary silicon chip, in light of the fact that on its trip it will be besieged by more high-vitality radiation than chips experience on Earth. “You are above a large portion of the attractive fields that square a great deal of radiation, or more the greater part of the air, which additionally makes a decent showing with regards to of blocking radiation,” says Brett Streetman, who drives endeavors in chip-scale rocket at the Charles Stark Draper Research center, in Cambridge, Mass.

Radiation prompts to the collection of decidedly charged deformities in the chip’s silicon dioxide layer, where they debase gadget execution. The most genuine of the debilitations is an expansion in the present that holes through a transistor when it should be killed, as indicated by Yang-Kyu Choi, pioneer of the group at KAIST, where the work was finished.

Two choices for tending to chip harm are to choose a way through space that limits radiation introduction and to include protecting. In any case, the previous prompts to longer missions and obliges investigation, and the last includes weight and invalidates the upside of utilizing a scaled down specialty. An obviously better approach, contends Moon, is to give the gadgets a chance to endure harm yet to outline them so they can recuperate themselves with warmth.

Can withstand huge amount of Radiation in space travel

“On-chip mending has been around for some, numerous years,” says Jin-Charm Han, an individual from the NASA group. The basic expansion made now, Han says, is the most thorough investigation of radiation harm up until this point.

This review uses KAIST’s test “door all-around” nanowire transistor. These gadgets utilize nanoscale wires as the transistor channel rather than today’s blade formed channels. The door all-around gadget may not be outstanding today, but rather generation is required to rocket in the mid 2020s. [See “Transistors Could Quit Contracting in 2021,” IEEE Range, August 2016.]

The door—the terminal that turns the stream of charge through the direct on or off—totally encompasses the nanowire. Adding an additional contact to the entryway permits you to go current through it. That present warms the door and the channel it encompasses, settling any radiation-prompted abandons.

Nanowire transistors are perfect for space, as indicated by KAIST, since they actually have a moderately high level of insusceptibility to vast beams and in light of the fact that they are little, with measurements in the many nanometers. “The regular size for [transistor measurements on] chips dedicated to rocket applications is around 500 nanometers,” says Choi. “On the off chance that you can supplant 500-nm highlight sizes with 20-nm include sizes, the chip size and weight can be decreased.” Costs fall as well.

KAIST’s outline has been utilized to shape three key building obstructs for a solitary chip rocket: a microchip, Measure memory for supporting this, and blaze memory that can fill in as a hard drive.

Repairs to radiation-actuated harm can be made ordinarily, with examinations demonstrating that glimmer memory can be recouped up to around 10,000 circumstances and Measure came back to its flawless state 1012 circumstances. With rationale gadgets, a much higher figure is normal. These outcomes show that an extensive interstellar space mission could occur, with the chip shut down at regular intervals, warmed inside to recuperate its execution, and after that breathed life into back.

Philip Lubin, an educator at the College of California, Santa Clause Barbara, trusts that this toughening based approach is “innovative and smart” yet thinks about how much risk from enormous beams there truly will be to these chips. He might want to see an intensive assessment of existing advances for chip-scale rocket, bringing up that there are now radiation solidified hardware created in the military.

Today, endeavors at NASA and KAIST are concentrating on the disposal of the second door contact for warming. This contact is not perfect since it alters chip outline and requests the formation of another transistor library, which heightens creation costs. Those at KAIST are researching the ability of an alternate plan, called a junctionless nanowire transistor, which warms the channel amid typical operation. Independently, at NASA, specialists are creating on-chip inserted microheaters that are perfect with standard circuits.

Cutting the expenses of self-mending tech will assume a key part in deciding its future in chip-scale Space craft, which will require numerous more years of speculation before they can get off the ground.

source ieee.org

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Electronics in Automobiles-Mechanical marbles with electronic brains.

Automobiles

innovation have come a long way since their beginning in the late 19th century. One of the major things that has helped automobiles to provide more safety and convenience, though, is electronics. With the advances in technology and electronics, car manufacturers have been able to offer a wide variety of services and conveniences that many new automobile owners appreciate. From the creation of the Electronic Fuel Injection to the popular Global Positioning System found standard in many cars today, the auto industry has revolutionized the way people travel from place to place.

Electronic Fuel Injection, or EFI

One of the best innovations that electronics have created in the performance of automobiles is the Electronic Fuel Injection, or EFI for short. This device takes the place of the normal carburetor that has been the normal until recently. The job of the carburetor was typically the part of the engine that helps to evaporate fuel so that it mixes with the air for combustion. This provides power to the cylinders which helps the engine operate. A floating device within the carburetor is used to regulate the amount of fuel that the engine receives.
The EFI, on the other hand, uses a completely different technology to supply power to the engine. Instead of a floater that regulates the fuel to the engine, the EFI system electronically meters the fuel so that the exact amount needed is provided to the engine. In short, the EFI uses to fuel to power the engine by pumping it forcibly by using high pressure through a small nozzle or valve. This is how the EFI supplies the proper amount of fuel to the combustion process. The EFI system provides a great deal of benefits over the carburetor, too. Not only does this new technology prevent the engine from flooding by allowing too much fuel into the engine, but it is also more efficient and emission-friendly. The EFI system is also compatible with alternative fuels and it is more reliable than the traditional carburetor. You will also notice a smoother ride and more engine power with an EFI system.

 

electronics in cars, electronic system in cars,

electronics in cars

Computer Diagnostics.

The field of computer diagnostics has also helped to shape the way that automobile owners use their cars. The cars manufactured in the last couple decades have been built with a computer on-board to help owners realize engine problems or other problems before any damage is done. Before the computer diagnostics technology, most car owners did not know something was wrong with the engine until something drastic happened, such as overheating or running out of gas. Mechanics generally had to endure a trial-and-error method to find out what was the problem in many cases.
Now, however, computers in the cars constantly check the engine and its components to make sure it is always up to its optimum performance. When a problem arises, a corresponding light in the dashboard comes on so you know to take it to the mechanic as soon as possible. The computers use many sensors to detect temperature, fluid levels and many other aspects of an engine’s performance. Many times, the computers in the car will provide a code that mechanics can read so they know exactly what has malfunctioned. They have state-of-the-art equipment that they can attach to the car and find out the reason for the malfunction. While this is a very convenient solution to many engine problems, it does require very expensive equipment, such as oscilloscopes, a digital volt-ohm meter, sensor stimulators and high-tech computers to determine problems. It also requires extensive knowledge about how to use the technology. Mechanics often need to go through training to use this method.

cars electronic system

electronics in car

All-Wheel Drive / AWD.

Another great innovation – all-wheel drive (AWD) – has been a great addition to automobiles. This is commonly referred to as four-wheel drive or even 4×4. It means that all four wheels on the vehicle are receiving power from the engine rather than just two of them. This is a popular feature for sport utility vehicles, but it is becoming quite common among sports cars and other smaller vehicles because of its safety capabilities. With AWD technology, cars get better traction on ice and wet roads and it also gives the driver more control over the car.
The technology for AWD was first thought of in 1900 by the Porsche manufacturer, but it did not become popular until World War II. The idea was great for military vehicles that needed to travel over many different terrains and fields. After that, the idea was eventually implemented into civilian vehicles. The American Motors Company created the first complete line of all-wheel drive passenger vehicles in 1980. The Eagle was the most popular model in this line. Now, there are several different types of AWD technology that differs among the different car models, including the center differential with mechanical lock, Torsen center differential, multiple clutch systems and several others. It also includes electronic traction control devices as well as an electronic transfer case that shifts control between the front and the rear axles.

Airbags.

Another improvement in safety that electronics have provided is the airbags that are now standard in cars. Technically known as a Supplementary Restraint System (SRS), Air Cushion Restraint System (ACRS), or a Supplemental Inflatable Restraint (SIR), these provide a great deal of safety for the driver and passengers in a car. Created in 1952, the air bag technology is based on electronic sensors that measure the amount of quick deceleration through an accelerometer. This is a small electronic chip that moves as a result of fast deceleration and, as a result, signals the rapid ejection of the airbags. Car manufacturers are currently working on new airbag calculations to make them more effective and to help prevent unnecessary deployments. The new calculations will take into account the position of the seats, the use of a seat belt and the weight of the occupants to help determine when (and if) the airbag should be deployed.

Global Positioning System (GPS).

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a popular device that has made a splash in automobile electronics in recent years, too. These are basically electronic navigation devices that use satellites to monitor many aspects of an automobile. By using satellites, the GPS company can find the location of your car, the direction it is moving and the speed at which it is moving. As a result, your car can easily be found if it is stolen. The idea for this technology was first created in 1978 and used as an experimental device for the United States Department of Defense. Like most automobile technology, though, the idea quickly made its way into the civilian vehicles due to popular demand. A GPS will also give you step-by-step voice directions to your destinations, which tends to be the most popular feature of this electronic device. It can also come in handy if you lock your keys in your car. With a simple call to the GPS service provider, a representative can send a satellite signal to your car and unlock the doors. These devices are also great in a wide variety of emergencies, so they provide peace of mind in addition to safety and convenience.

Hybrid Cars.

This section would not be complete without talking about the electronics that is required to drive a Hybrid vehicle and one of the best examples is the Toyota Prius. This car uses the computer and digital electronics to manage the change between the differing combinations of power sources and due to electronics is pretty seamless if it weren’t for the energy consumption screen located in the Prius’ center console the driver would have little indication the complexity of it all this technology is called Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD).

The Future.

With brilliant minds working in the auto industry, there are limitless possibilities to what the manufacturers will include in their products in the coming years. In fact, the Lexus company now has a vehicle that will automatically parallel park your vehicle without the driver even needing to touch the wheel. If we look to the technology and electronics that are being used in the military vehicles, we can often predict the services that will be in civilian vehicles in the near future. This tends to be a trend in the automobile industry and will likely continue as people always want and expect more from their cars.
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Self-Driving Cars: Can computers be a better drivers?


Moving beyond horsepower to deliver a new era of driving safety and convenience

We all know the technology is getting better and better.the things get more smart and reliable there is also a great demand of robots,

the things get more smart and reliable there is also a great demand of robots,

artificial intelligence, and after the unmanned aerial vehicles .companies are trying to design more innovative solution for out everyday transportation and road safety.

As most of Road accidents are caused due to human error, Nowadays the computers getting more smarter and smarter and does most of the jobs in our day-to-day life,

there are several unmanned vehicles like under water submarines or drones or flying objects,

But implementing it on a road is quite different,

As computers have to become more adaptive and capable of performing the task and also overcoming the mistakes committed with other driver or people on road.

also they have to deal with traffic conditions and sometimes need to re-navigate to the destination,
Self-driving cars and autonomous vehicles are a great focus for the various tech giants like GOOGLE, TESLA, AMAZONMercedes-Benz and new emerging companies like LE ECO, Delphi.

The cars are classified as:-self driven cars, driver less cars

 

it could be decades before cars come standard without a steering wheel or pedals,

Undeniably, there will be a lot of things to figure out — government regulations, liability insurance rules and the development of infrastructure needed to support driverless vehicles, to name a few.

“Still, though, the benefits of a self-driving car — like the projected drop in accidents, increased fuel economy and, at some time in the future, the joy of being able to enjoy your paper and coffee en route to work

Google’s Self-driving car

Since 2009, Google(project named as Waymo) has been developing its self-driving technology in Toyota Prius and Lexus models on the streets of Mountain View, California, near the search giant’s headquarters.

So far, Google has kept its testing close to home, but the company says it’s adding new streets every week.

Google has made big strides since it first started testing.

The technology can now recognize pedestrians and cyclists, detect hundreds of objects simultaneously and even “read” stop signs.

In May 2014, Google revealed plans to build fully autonomous vehicles for testing, and in January it revealed the prototype.google car, self driving, driver less

These cars don’t have a steering wheel, brake pedal or accelerator pedal, because, well, “they don’t need them,” notes Google.

The sensors and software do the work.

the care is loaded with a lot of sensors and a huge amount of computing power to process all the information.

The company hopes to test the prototypes on public roads in California later in 2015, with pilot tests elsewhere to follow.

Google believes driverless vehicles could significantly improve road safety and help those who are disabled, blind or otherwise can’t drive.

these cars need a lot of sensors and a lot of computing power. that why companies are focusing on designing the

that why companies are focusing on designing the artificial intelligence.

intel is developing technologies for the high-end computing to achieve the task of autonomous cars.

 

hybrid cars,self driving cars